The Arts and Crafts progress began mainly as a search for real and meaningful styles for the 19th century and as a response to the miscellaneous revival of famous styles of the Victorian era and to "inexpressive" machine-made manufacture aided by the Industrial Revolution. Considering the instrument to be the source cause of all repetitive and ordinary evils, some of the protagonists of this association turned completely away from the use of technology and towards handcraft, which tended to focus their productions in the hands of receptive but comfortable consumers.
Yet, while the Arts and Crafts movement was in great part a effect to industrialization, if looked at on the entire, it was neither anti-modern. Some of the European factions thought that machines were in fact required, but they should only be used to reduce the tediousness of routine, repetitive tasks. At the same time, some Arts and Crafts leaders felt that things should also be reasonable. The difference between quality production and 'demo' design, and the effort to settle the two, subject design debate at the turn of the twentieth century.