Wednesday, December 31, 2008


The social stigma associated with mental disorders is a widespread problem. Some people believe those with serious mental illnesses cannot recover, or are to blame for problems. The US Surgeon General stated in 1999 that: "Powerful and pervasive, stigma prevents people from acknowledging their own mental health problems, much less disclosing them to others. Employment discrimination is reported to play a significant part in the high rate of unemployment among those with a diagnosis of mental illness.

Efforts are being undertaken worldwide to eliminate the stigma of mental illness their methods and outcomes have sometimes been criticized as counterproductive.

A study by Baylor University researchers found that clergy often deny or dismiss the existence of the mental illness. In a study published in Mental Health, Religion and Culture, researchers found that in a study of 293 Christian’s church members, more than 32 percent were told by their church pastor that they or their loved one did not really have a mental illness.

Wednesday, December 24, 2008


Mental disorders have been found to be relatively common, with more than one in three people in most countries reporting sufficient criteria for at least one diagnosis at some point in their life up to the time they were assessed. A new WHO global survey currently underway indicates that anxiety disorders are the most common in all but 1 country, followed by mood disorders in all but 2 countries, while substance disorders and impulse-control disorders were consistently less prevalent. Rates varied by region. Such statistics are widely believed to be underestimates, due to poor diagnosis (especially in countries without affordable access to mental health services) and low reporting rates, in part because of the predominant use of self-report data rather than semi-structured instruments.[citation needed] Actual lifetime prevalence rates for mental disorders are estimated to be between 65% and 85%.[citation needed]

A review of anxiety disorder surveys in different countries found average lifetime prevalence estimates of 16.6%, with women having higher rates on average. A review of mood disorder surveys in different countries found lifetime rates of 6.7% for major depressive disorder (higher in some studies, and in women) and 0.8% for bipolar 1 disorder.

The updated US National Co morbidity Survey (NCS) reported that nearly half of Americans (46.4%) meet criteria at some point in their life for either an anxiety disorder (28.8%), mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder (24.8%) or substance use disorder (14.6%).

Wednesday, December 17, 2008


Prognosis depends on the disorder, the individual and numerous related factors. Some disorders may be transient, while some may last a lifetime in some cases. Some disorders may be very limited in their functional effects, while others may involve substantial disability and support needs. The degree of ability or disability may vary across different life domains. Continued disability has been linked to institutionalization, discrimination and social exclusion as well as to the inherent properties of disorders.

Even those disorders often considered the most serious and intractable have varied courses. Long-term international studies of schizophrenia have found that over a half of individuals recover in terms of symptoms, and around a fifth to a third in terms of symptoms and functioning, with some requiring no medication. At the same time, many have serious difficulties and support needs for many years, although "late" recovery is still possible. The WHO concluded that the findings joined others in "relieving patients, careers and clinicians of the chronic paradigm which dominated thinking throughout much of the 20th century." Around half of people initially diagnosed with bipolar disorder achieve syndromal recovery (no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis) within six weeks, and nearly all achieve it within two years, with nearly a half regaining their prior occupational and residential status in that period.

Wednesday, December 10, 2008

Child Mental Health

It's easy to know when your child has a fever. A child's mental health problem may be harder to identify, but you can learn to recognize the symptoms. Pay attention to excessive anger, fear, sadness or anxiety. Sudden changes in your child's behavior can tip you off to a problem. So can behaviors like exercising too much, or hurting or destroying things.

Some common mental health problems in children are

* Depression
* Anxiety
* Behavior disorders
* Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Mental health problems can disrupt daily life at home, at school or in the community. Without help, mental health problems can lead to school failure, alcohol or other drug abuse, family discord, violence or even suicide. However, help is available. Talk to your health care provider if you have concerns about your child's behavior.

Wednesday, November 19, 2008

Mental health

Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental disorder.From perspectives of the discipline of positive psychology or holism mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life and procure a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience.

The World Health Organization defines mental health as a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It was previously stated that there was no one "official" definition of mental health. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how "mental health" is defined.

Wednesday, November 12, 2008

Men's Health

While the life-expectancy gap between men and women has decreased, it's no secret that men still need to pay more attention to their bodies. Several things work against men. They tend to smoke and drink more than women. They don't seek medical help as often as women. Some men define themselves by their work, which can add to stress.

There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate cancer and low testosterone. Many of the major health risks that men face – like colon cancer or heart disease - can be prevented and treated with early diagnosis. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they are easier to treat. It's important to have regular checkups and screenings.

Tuesday, November 04, 2008


In computing, a JAR file (or Java ARchive) file used to deal out a set of Java classes. It is used to store compiled Java classes and connected metadata that can constitute a program.

* WAR (file format) (Web Application aRchive) files are also Java archives which store XML files, java classes, Java Server Pages and extra objects for Web Applications.

* EAR (file format) (Enterprise ARchive) files are also Java archives which store XML files, java classes and additional objects for Enterprise Applications.

* RAR (file format) (Resource Adapter aRchive) files are also Java archives which store XML files, java classes and added objects for J2EE Connector Architecture (JCA) applications.

Wednesday, October 15, 2008

Treatments for Mental disorder :Medication

A major option for lots of mental disorders is psychiatric medication. There are a number of main groups. Antidepressants are used for the treatment of clinical despair as well as often for anxiety and other disorders. There is a number of antidepressants start with the tricylics, moving through a wide variety of drugs that modify a range of facets of the brain chemistry commerce with intercellular message. Beta-blockers, urbanized as a heart medication, are also old as an antidepressant. Anxiolytics are used for anxiety disorders and associated problems such as insomnia. Mood stabilizers are used primarily in bipolar confusion. Lithium A and Lamictal are notable for treat both mania and depression. The others, mainly target mania rather than depression, are a wide variety of epilepsy medication and antipsychotics. Antipsychotics are used for psychotic disorders, notably for positive symptom in schizophrenia. Stimulants are usually used, notably for ADHD. Despite the different conformist names of the drug groups, there can be significant overlap in the kinds of disorders for which they are in reality indicated. There may also be off-label use. There can be harms with adverse effects and adherence.

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Mental disorders treatments: Psychotherapy

A major option for lots of mental disorders is psychotherapy. There are numerous main types. Cognitive behavioral therapy is extensively used and is based on modify the patterns of thought and behavior linked with a particular disorder. Psychoanalysis, addressing basic psychic conflicts and resistance, has been a main school of psychotherapy and is still in use. Systemic therapy or family treatment is sometimes used, address a network of momentous others as well as a person. Some psychotherapy is based on a humanistic come near. There are a number of specific therapies used for exacting disorder, which may be offshoots or hybrids of the above types. Mental health professional often employ an eclectic or integrative move toward. Much may depend on the therapeutic association, and there may be problems with trust, privacy and appointment.

Wednesday, September 17, 2008

Services and treatments for mental disorder

Treatment and support may be provide in psychiatric hospital, clinics or any of a diverse range of society mental health services. Often an individual may engage in different action modalities. Individuals may be treated beside their will in some cases. Services in some country are ever more based on a Recovery model that supports an individual's individual journey to regain a important life.

A major option for many mental disorder is psychotherapy. There are several main types. Cognitive behavioral therapy is widely used and is based on modify the patterns of thought and behavior linked with a particular disorder. Psychoanalysis, addressing fundamental psychic conflicts and defenses, has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use. Systemic therapy or family therapy is occasionally used, addressing a system of significant others as well as an individual. Some psychotherapies are base on a humanistic approach. There are a number of specific therapies used for exacting disorders, which may be offshoots or hybrids of the above types. Mental health professional often employ an eclectic or integrative come near. Much may depend on the therapeutic association, and there may be harms with trust, privacy and meeting.

Wednesday, September 10, 2008


Many mental health professionals, mainly psychiatrists, seek to diagnose individuals by ascertain their particular mental disorder. Some professionals, for example some clinical psychologists, may avoid diagnosis in favor of other appraisal methods such as formulation of a client's difficulties and circumstances. The majority of mental health harms is actually assess and treated by family physicians through consultations, which may refer on for more specialist psychiatry in acute or chronic cases. Routine diagnostic practice in mental health military typically involves an interview, where judgments are made of the interviewee's look and behavior, self-reported symptoms, mental health history, and current life circumstances.

The views of relatives or other third party may be taken into relation. A physical assessment to check for ill health or the effects of medications or other drugs may be conduct. Psychological testing is now and then used via paper-and-pen or computerized questionnaire, which may include algorithms, based on ticking off consistent diagnostic criteria and in moderately rare specialist cases neuroimaging tests may be request, but these methods are more commonly found in research studies than routine clinical practice.

It has been found that most clinicians appraise patients using an unstructured, open-ended approach, with restricted training in evidence-based assessment methods, and that inaccurate analysis may be common in routine practice. Comorbidity is very ordinary in psychiatric diagnosis, i.e. the same person given a diagnosis in more than one group of disorder.

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

Causes of Mental Disorders

Numerous factors have been linked to the growth of mental disorders. In many cases there is no single traditional or consistent cause currently recognized. A common view held is that disorders often result from genetic vulnerabilities combining with ecological stressors. An eclectic or pluralistic mix of models may be used to make clear particular disorders. The primary paradigm of modern mainstream Western psychiatry is said to be the biopsychosocial model - incorporating biological, psychological and social factors - though this may not be practical in practice. Biopsychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model, focusing on "organic" or "hardware" pathology of the brain. Psychoanalytic theory has been accepted but is now less so. Evolutionary psychology may be used as an in general explanatory theory. Attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological come near sometimes applied in the context for mental disorder. A distinction is occasionally made between a "medical model" or a "social model" of disorder and connected disability.

Genetic studies have indicated that genes often play a significant role in the growth of mental disorders; via developmental pathways interact with environmental factors. The reliable credit of relations between exact genes and specific categories of confusion has proven more difficult.

Environmental events nearby pregnancy and birth have also been concerned. Traumatic brain injury may augment the risk of developing certain mental disorder. There have been some hesitant conflicting links found to certain viral infection, to substance misuse, and to general physical health.

Abnormal performance of neurotransmitter system has been concerned, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine and glutamate system. Differences have also been establishing in the size or movement of certain brains region in some cases. Psychological mechanisms have also been concerned, such as cognitive and emotional process, personality, and personality and coping style.

Social influence has been found to be significant, including abuse, bullying and other negative or stressful life experience. The specific risks and pathways to exacting disorders are less clear, however. Aspects of the wider society have also been concerned, including employment problems, socioeconomic inequality, lack of social cohesion, problems linked to relocation, and features of exacting societies and culture.

Tuesday, August 19, 2008

Classification of mental disorders

In general a mental disorder has been characterized as a clinically significant behavioral or psychological outline that occurs in an individual and is usually connected with distress, disability or improved risk of suffering. There is often a criterion that a state should not be expected to occur as part of a person's usual culture or religion. The term "serious mental illness" is occasionally used to refer to more severe and long-lasting disorder. A broad meaning can cover mental disorder, mental retardation, and personality disorder and substance dependence. The phrase "mental health problems" may be used to refer only to milder or added transient issues.

There are currently two widely recognized systems that classify mental disorders “International Classification of Diseases”, shaped by the World Health Organization, and the “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders” shaped by the American Psychiatric Association. Both list categories of disorder and provide uniform criteria for diagnosis. They have purposely converged their codes in recent revision so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although significant difference remains. Other categorization schemes may be in use more locally, for example the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders. Other manual may be used by those of alternative theoretical persuasions, for example the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual.

Some approach to classification do not employ distinct category based on cut-offs separating the abnormal from the normal. They are variously referred to as spectrum, continuum or dimensional system. There is a important scientific debate about the relative merits of a categorical or a non-categorical scheme. There is also significant argument about the role of science and values in classification scheme, and about the professional, legal and common uses to which they are put.

Tuesday, August 12, 2008

Mental disorder

Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychosomatic or behavioral outline that occur in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not predictable as part of normal growth or culture. The recognition and accepting of mental disorders has distorted over time and across cultures. Definitions, assessments, and classifications of mental disorders can differ, but guideline measure listed in the ICD, DSM and other manual are widely established by mental health professionals. Categories of diagnose in these schemes may include dissociative disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, eating disorders, developmental disorders, personality disorders, and lots of other categories.

In many cases there is no single established or consistent cause of mental disorders, although they are often explain in terms of a diathesis-stress model and biopsychosocial model. Mental disorders have been found to be ordinary, with over a third of people in most countries reporting enough criteria at some position in their life. Mental health services may be base in hospitals or in the community. Mental health professional diagnose persons using different methodologies, often relying on case history and meeting. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medicine are two major handling options, as well as caring intervention. Treatment may be instinctive where legislation allows. Several actions movement for change to mental health services and attitudes, as well as the Consumer/Survivor group. There are widespread harms with stigma and inequity.