Monday, July 30, 2007


Software basically is the distinct image or representation of physical or material position that constitute configuration to or functional identity of a machine, usually a computer. As a substance of memory, software in principle can be changed without the alteration to the static paradigm of the hardware thus without the remanufacturing thereof. Generally software is of an algorithmic form which translates into being to a progression of machine instructions. Some software, however, is relational forms which translate into being the map of a recognition network.

Software is a program that enables a computer to achieve a specific task, as contrasting to the physical components of the system. This include application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to achieve a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run suitably, by interfacing with hardware and with other software.

Tuesday, July 24, 2007


Metabolism is the total set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. These processes are the source of life, allowing cells to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and react to their environments. Metabolism is frequently divided into two categories. Catabolic reactions yield energy, an example being the stop working of food in cellular respiration. Anabolic reactions, on the other hand, use this energy to construct mechanism of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is distorted into another by a series of enzymes. Enzymes are vital to metabolism because they allow cells to drive desirable but thermodynamically unfavorable reactions by combination them to favorable ones. Enzymes also agree to the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or signals from other cells.

Monday, July 16, 2007


It is the science and technology of robots, their plan, manufacture, and application.Robotics requires functioning information of electronics, mechanics, and software. A person functioning in the field is a roboticist. The word robotics was first used in issue by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Runaround" (1941).

Although the outside and capabilities of robots vary extremely, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The chain is misshapen of links, actuators and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. Most modern robots use open sequential chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it. These robots are called serial robots and often look like the human arm. A few robots, such as the Stewart platform, use closed parallel kinematic chains. Other structures, such as those that imitate the mechanical structure of humans, diverse animals and insects, are relatively rare. However, the development and use of such structures in robots is a dynamic area of research. Robots used as manipulators have a finish effector mount on the last link. This end effector can be something from a welding mechanism to a mechanical provide used to manipulate the environment.

Wednesday, July 11, 2007

Hardware and software design

Supercomputers using custom CPUs traditionally gained their speed over conventional computers through the use of innovative designs that allow them to carry out many tasks in parallel, as well as complex feature engineering. They tend to be expert for certain types of computation, usually numerical calculations, and perform poorly at more general computing tasks. Their memory hierarchy is very cautiously designed to ensure the processor is kept fed with data and commands at all times—in fact, much of the performance difference between slower computers and supercomputers is due to the memory hierarchy. Their I/O systems tend to be planned to support high bandwidth, with latency less of an issue, because supercomputers are not used for transaction processing.

As with all highly parallel systems, Amdahl's law applies, and supercomputer designs devote great effort to eliminate software serialization, and using hardware to speed up the remaining bottlenecks.